Tristram, The Seventh Earl of Cricklewood track Percy Sledge track 1. Bob Crewe track 2. Bob Gaudio track 2. Michelle Grainger track Calvin Lewis track 1. Betty Newcombe track 3. Steve Wadey track Andrew Wright US keyboardist track 1.
Ltd music licensing track 1. Mercury Records Ltd. Motown Record Corporation track Biem international rights organization representing member societies from 58 countries — track 1. Stemra Netherlands rights society for composers and music publishers — track 1. Motown Records track April Music Inc.
Donovan Music Ltd. Hournew Music Ltd. Jobete Music UK Ltd. Jobete Music Co. MCA Music Publishing renamed since c. Mijac Music track 1. Portable Music Co. Stone Agate Music tracks 17, Stone Agate Music Division tracks 16—17, 17— Tree Music track 5.
Trousdale Music track Warner Chappell Music Ltd. Warner Chappell North America track 1. Pronto Music — track 1. Quinvy Music Publishing Company, Inc. Western Recorders Sunset Blvd. Wild Thing by [unknown] track The E. Concerto Grosso no.
Wahnsinn translated track Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a magnetic tape sound recording format. Although it was originally intended as a medium for dictation, improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette to supplant reel-to-reel tape recording in most non-professional applications.
Between the early s and late s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP and later the Compact Disc. Compact Cassettes consist of two miniature spools, between which a magnetically coated plastic tape is passed and wound. These spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell. Two stereo pairs of tracks four total or two monaural audio tracks are available on the tape; one stereo pair or one monophonic track is played or recorded when the tape is moving in one direction and the second pair when moving in the other direction.
Philips introduced the compact audio cassette medium for audio storage in Europe in , and in the United States in , under the trademark name Compact Cassette. It went on to become a popular and re-recordable alternative to the turntable for LP records during the late s. The mass production of compact audio cassettes began in in Hanover, Germany. Prerecorded music cassettes also known as Musicassettes; M. The Mercury Record Company, a U. The initial offering consisted of 49 titles.
However, the system had been initially designed for dictation and portable use, with the audio quality of early players not well suited for music. Some early models also had unreliable mechanical design. In the Advent Corporation introduced their Model tape deck that combined Dolby type B noise reduction and chromium dioxide CrO2 tape, with a commercial-grade tape transport mechanism supplied by the Wollensak camera division of 3M Corporation.
This resulted in the format being taken more seriously for musical use, and started the era of high-fidelity cassettes and players.
Some would partially collapse if they were not actually holding a cassette. As the transistor radio defined small music in the s, the portable CD player in the s, and the MP3 player in the s, so did the Walkman define very small portable music in the s, with cassette sales overtaking those of LPs.
Apart from the purely technical advances cassettes brought, they also served as catalysts for social change. Their durability and ease of copying helped bring underground rock and punk music behind the Iron Curtain, creating a foothold for Western culture among the younger generations.
One of the most famous political uses of cassette tapes was the dissemination of sermons by the Ayatollah Khomeini throughout Iran before the Iranian revolution, in which Khomeini urged the overthrow of the regime of the Shah. In s India, they were blamed for bringing unwanted secular influences into traditionally religious areas.
Cassette technology created a booming market for pop music in India, drawing criticism from conservatives while at the same time creating a huge market for legitimate recording companies and pirated tapes. In many Western countries, the market for cassettes has declined sharply since its peak in the late s. This has been particularly noticeable with pre-recorded cassettes, whose sales were overtaken by those of Compact Discs during the early s.
Since then, the pre-recorded market has undergone further decline, with few retailers stocking them because they are no longer issued by the major music labels. Cassette recorders and players are gradually becoming scarcer, but are still widely available and still feature in a notable percentage of Hi-Fi systems. Cassettes remained popular for specific applications, such as car audio, well into the s.
Cassettes and their players were typically more rugged and resistant to dust, heat and shocks than the main digital competitor the CD. Their lower fidelity was not considered a serious drawback inside the typically noisy automobile interior of the time. While digital voice recorders are now common, Compact Cassette or frequently microcassette recorders tend to be cheaper and of sufficient quality to serve as adjuncts or substitutes for note taking in business and educational settings.
Audiobooks, church services, and other spoken word material are still frequently sold on cassette, as lower fidelity is generally not a drawback for such content. While most publishers sell CD audiobooks, they usually also offer a cassette version at the same price.
In the audiobooks application, where recordings may span several hours, cassettes also have the advantage of holding up to minutes of material whereas the average CD holds less than While cassettes and related equipment have become increasingly marginal in commercial music sales, recording on analog tape remains a desirable option for some.
Unlike the 4-track stereo open reel format, the two stereo tracks of each side lie adjacent to each other rather than being interleaved with the tracks of the other side. The tape is 3. The tape moves at 4. Cassette types Notches on the top surface of the audio cassette indicate its type. The top cassette, with only write protect notches here covered by write protect tabs , is a Type I. The next cassette down, with additional notches adjacent to the write protect notch, is a Type II.
The bottom two cassettes, featuring the Type II notches plus an additional pair in the middle of the cassette are type IV metal ; note the removal of the tabs on the second of these, meaning the tape is write-protected. Notches on the top surface of the audio cassette indicate its type. Cassette tapes are made of a polyester type plastic film with a magnetic coating. The original magnetic material was based on gamma ferric oxide Fe2O3.
Circa , 3M Company developed a cobalt volume-doping process combined with a double-coating technique to enhance overall tape output levels. Cobalt-adsorbed iron oxide Avilyn was introduced by TDK in and proved very successful. Finally pure metal particles as opposed to oxide formulations were introduced in by 3M under the trade name Metafine.
Simple voice recorders are designed to work with standard ferric formulations. High fidelity tape decks are usually built with switches or detectors for the different bias and equalization requirements for high performance tapes. Notches on top of the cassette shell indicate the type of tape within. Type I cassettes only have write-protect notches, Type II have an additional pair next to the write protection ones, and Type IV metal have a third set in the middle of the cassette shell.
Chuck Berry. After School Session. Rock 'N Roll Music [Charly]. Various Artists. Twin Best. Rock 'N' Roll Legends. The Rock 'N' Roll Era: . Chuck Berry [Universal International]. Legends of Rock [Goldies Box Set]. Heartbreaker Hits of the 50's, 60's and 70's.
Original Soundtrack. Jazz on a Summer's Day [Soundtrack Factory]. Best Selection. Sweet Little Sixteen. The History of Rock 'N' Roll. The Best of Chuck Berry [Collecting]. Music Of My Life Vol. Star Club. Paul McCartney's Jukebox. The British Hit Parade, Pt. The Classic Years. Simply Rock 'n' Roll . Brian Wilson. Three Original Hit Albums. Greatest Hits of the 50's. Classic Years, Vol. The Pop Years: The 50s. Simply: Tony Bennett. The Complete Collection.
The Great American Songbook. Legends: Jeepers Creepers. Stranger in Paradise: Golden Hits. Swooning and Crooning. Because of You [INgrooves]. America's Number Ones of the '50s. Decade of Hits: The 50's. Essential Crooners Collection. Golden Radio Hits Greatest Hits of the s, Vol. Simply Great Songs.
Stars of the Fifties, Vol. Swooning and Crooning: of the Greatest. The Golden Crooners: 25 Classic Tracks. The Happy Wanderer: 25 Nostalgic Hits.
Tony Bennett: The Vintage Collection. Number Ones: January - December Black Hole. Various Artists Simply the Best: Singers. Various Artists All the Crooners. Tony Bennett Unforgettable Favourites.Philips introduces the cassette tape which was intended to replace open reel tapes. The advent of cassettes and cassette players provided a medium for the introduction of the various Dolby systems of reducing noise and hiss.