Maybe we're a little bit more like pirates that way. We defend our territory, whatever space we steal to paint on, we defend it fiercely. Graffiti on the train line leading to Central Station in Amsterdam. Ironic graffiti in Bethlehem. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Street art.
Graffiti on a wall in Budapest. Multi-artist graffiti in Barcelona , Spain. Main article: Graffiti in the United States. Rampant graffiti hampers visibility into and out of subway cars Graffiti-lined tunnel in San Francisco.
Graffiti in Los Angeles Visual arts portal. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Encyclopedia of the City. University of Exeter Press.
Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 20 Apr The Classical Review. Story of Sigiriya. Melbourne, Australia: Panique Pty Ltd. London: Govt. The Atlantic Monthly. April National Park Service. Retrieved 18 January Jinx Magazine. Archived from the original on Classical Archaeology of Greece: Experiences of the Discipline. London, New York: Routledge. Retrieved 23 August Who Is Bozo Texino? The Secret History of Hobo Graffiti. Military Anecdotes Guinness Publishing. The New York Times.
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Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on February 22, Khabar Southeast Asia. New York. Expression as vandalism: Asger Jorn's "Modifications". The University of Chicago Press. Archived from the original DOC on Wall and Piece. The Boston Globe. Retrieved 1 Mar Southern Records. Dr Rat died in of an overdose at the age of 20 and was somewhat of an underground hero.
It has also appeared with a vengeance on street signs and local highways, where bridge pillars and retaining walls beckon like big blank canvases.
New markings cover several layers of faded scrawls along the concrete barriers at the hairpin turn leading from the Cross County Parkway into the southbound Hutchinson River Parkway, for instance. And in Greenburgh, the yellow and black signs along both sides of Jackson Avenue indicating a curve in the road at the intersection of Old Jackson Avenue are persistent targets for a vandal wielding red spray paint.
Sometimes, the cleanup itself is unsightly. Each batch of concrete comes out a different color, so no one shade of paint can match every surface.
Cleanup crews often cover patches of graffiti with blotches of paint rather than an entire new coat. Graffiti is becoming a more common part of the suburban wallpaper, perpetrated not just by gang members but teenagers of all social echelons. We've arrested kids from Scarsdale painting graffiti on bridge abutments. It doesn't know any economic strata.
In Putnam County, officials have been vexed by vandals who persistently cover an abandoned railroad bridge visible on Route 6 with large white letters.
After a crew painted over the word ''Brewster,'' preceded by an expletive, someone circumvented a secure fence and put up the name ''Andrew'' to memorialize Andrew McArdle, a high school student who died in a car crash in January.
Graffiti covering a nearby fence read ''Miss you, Andrew's Bridge,'' and '' 68,'' his football jersey number. Retaining walls and buildings along Metro-North tracks also attract taggers, graffiti perpetrators who put up their tags, or signatures.
Sneeze, a small year-old, said he pulls up the seat covers in the cars and hides among the heating pipes until the police clear out.
Mack, the king, said he can hardly wait until the summer when his crew is really going to ''break out. Peter V. Graffiti which includes is literally making a death threat. For Hispanic gangs from southern California, the number 13 often written on the streets as XIII , represents the fact that these gangs are Surenos southerners. The number 13 represents the letter M, M is the 13th letter of the alphabet , short for "Eme," or the Mexican Mafia.
Gangs from northern California, called Nortenos, may use the number 14 XIV , which stands for N, the 14th letter of the alphabet. Many gang names, particularly those from Southern California, include the numbers or names of the streets on which the gang was originally founded. Some examples of these types of gangs include 18th Street and 38th Street.
In addition, many Los Angeles-style gangs will use telephone area codes in their graffiti. Gang graffiti may also include the territory claimed by the gang. Often, this is represented as directional coordinates, such as East Side or West Side. Results of Graffiti Graffiti devalues property and makes people feel unsafe in their neighborhoods. In addition to its unsightly appearance, gang graffiti can have frightening results. Graffiti can provoke gang rivals into a violent confrontation.
Gang members take the messages they read in graffiti seriously, and the longer graffiti is left up in a neighborhood, the greater the risk that the threats will be acted upon. Nicknames: The nicknames of gang members are frequently included within the graffiti, often in a roll-call list or placa. These names may be simple, and typically are descriptions of the appearance or personality of individual gang members: Green Eyes, Casper, Smiley, Goofy, or other similar names. Territory: The area claimed by the gang, including directional locators east side , street names, city names, and telephone area codes.
Threats and Challenges: Often graffiti threatens or challenges rival gangs. A gang may "X" out or cross out the graffiti of a rival gang or gang member, or write "" homicide next to it. A gang member may also write "killer" in conjunction with a rival gang's name or abbreviate it with the initial of the gang and the letter K i. Numbers: Gangs often use numbers as part of their name 18th Street , or area codes to identify where the gang is located.
The numbers 13 and 14 are very common in Hispanic gang graffiti, and the letters 5 or 6 may be found in Chicago-style graffiti. Symbols: Some gangs use a common symbol to identify their affiliation. Koch surrounded the train yards with two fences topped with barbed wire and guarded by German Shepherds. This worked until graffiti writers realized they could distract the dogs with food and cut through the fences.
Courtesy of Amtrak. Yet even Gunn was intimidated by the state of New York's subways; he called the job a "suicide mission. For decades, authorities treated subway graffiti like it was a sanitation issue. Gunn believed that graffiti was a symptom of larger systemic problems. After all, trains were derailing nearly every two weeks.
Like several other teens, he emulated TAKI by tagging, too. Through the next 40 years, graffiti evolved from simple magic marker tags to colorful, whole-train and building murals. And while some people view these elaborate pieces as vandalism, others see them as art. Graffiti found praise among art dealers and gallery goers in the early s, and it caught the eye of film and record producers. Graffiti graced album covers and provided a colorful backdrop in music videos.
Several hip-hop scholars and graffiti artists agree that this is when the graffiti movement melded with the hip-hop movement. In the words of hip-hop scholar Jeff Chang, "There is still a raging debate, especially amongst older graffiti writers, as to whether hip-hop and graffiti are linked.
But once hip-hop was presented with graffiti in movies such as Wild Style and Style Wars, History took a different turn. Now that we've covered the art of hip-hop, let's investigate the sound of hip-hop -- starting with how Kool Herc became the founding father of a cultural movement. Kool Herc Clive Campbell , became the founding father of hip-hop when he segued from tagging to turn-tabling.
One of his first memorable gigs was a back-to-school party hosted by his sister. Flyers for the party listed Herc as the DJ. His name was fairly well known because of his tagging exploits, so the party had a large turnout -- people showed up to get a glimpse of Kool Herc [source: Gross ].
Partygoers quickly found out that Herc wasn't like other DJs. He didn't merely ensure a steady stream of tunes. By watching the crowds, Herc realized there were portions of songs that were better for dancing. People waited to dance until these instrumental breaks or beats would play. To solve this problem, Herc used two turntables and two copies of a record. He would switch back and forth, playing the same portion of the song repeatedly. This became known as breakbeats.
Herc's toasting also increased the enthusiasm of the crowd -- with shout-outs like "Rock on my mellow," Herc encouraged partygoers to keep moving [source: Hebdige ]. Over time, DJing became more difficult and required more attention -- so much so that Herc had little time for toasting.
Coke La Rock expanded his toasting to full-fledged poems, and rapping was born. Free-style dancing was popular, and during the extended breaks, some dancers would go particularly wild. These were the first b-boys -- a moniker Herc coined. We'll talk more about dance in the section on hip-hop movement. Soon, the DJ scene started to explode with talent.
Bambaataa, a former member of the Black Spades street gang, witnessed firsthand what gang life was doing to people in his community. Through the creation of the Zulu Nation, Bambaataa planned to rid communities of violence and drugs and replace them with the positive elements of hip-hop.
Today, Bambaataa remains an ambassador of hip-hop culture. Inspired by his father's collection of music, Grandmaster Flash took his knowledge of electronics and put it to history-making use as a DJ, helping make several contributions to hip-hop:.
These and other pioneers carried hip-hop through house and street parties until the s. Then, with the first recordings of hip-hop music, the scene started to move to larger venues and people's homes. The first hip-hop radio show, Mr. MCs became more prominent figures, sometimes replacing the DJ as the front man. The intent of the music also started to shift -- we'll look at how in the next section. While Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Afrika Bambaataa and some of the other hip-hop pioneers were hitting the recording studios in the s, a new guard of hip-hop artists started to appear.
Hip-hop was crossing boundaries, making appearances in new wave and punk music. The industry changed along with the sounds.Graffiti (both singular and plural; the singular graffito is very rare in English except in archeology) is writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire.