The pitch, however, was flat and not conducive to either pace or spin bowling and as England failed to use the new ball well at both the beginning and end of the day, it proved to be one of the most frustrating days in the field English cricket had endured in modern Ashes series.
Australia continued their dominance throughout the second day. Ponting and Hussey continued their partnership, putting together Flintoff finally took Hussey's wicket when he was on 86, bowled through the gate, with the off-stump out of the ground, when he had looked set for a century.
Matthew Hoggard finally made a significant breakthrough in the afternoon, taking the wickets of Ponting for and Adam Gilchrist for a duck in the same over, both men out lbw. Ponting's allowed him to surpass Graham Gooch as the seventh highest Test run scorer of all time Gooch scored 8, runs. Michael Clarke crafted a solid 56 before falling to Anderson, edging a good delivery to slip.
Australia's tail wagged, with Brett Lee scoring 43 and Stuart Clark hitting a quick-fire 39 off 23 balls before having his leg stump knocked out of the ground by Flintoff. His innings included two huge sixes off the bowling of Anderson, who ended the innings with figures of runs for just one wicket. England had to negotiate the 17 overs remaining in the evening. Strauss was lambasted for his dismissal, top-edging a pull on a ball too full to be suitable for the shot. Clark removed Paul Collingwood , edging an off-cutter to Gilchrist.
Ian Bell and Pietersen were the not out batsmen, with scores of 13 and 6 respectively. Matters continued badly for England on day three and they ended their first innings on all out just after lunch, short of their follow-on target of Bell was the only England batsman to offer any real resistance, spending nearly four hours at the crease before being dismissed by Clark for It was a personal triumph for Bell, who had averaged just England's other specialist batsman, Pietersen, was out for only 16, trapped lbw to a ball from McGrath to which he did not offer a stroke.
All-rounder and captain Flintoff was out for a duck, caught behind off what replays suggested was a no-ball not spotted by umpire Steve Bucknor from Brett Lee.
Brief resistance also came from wicketkeeper Geraint Jones and spinner Giles, who made 19 and a quickfire 24 respectively, but both were out to McGrath. In total, McGrath took six wickets for only 50 runs conceded, a powerful response to critics who had suggested that he was, at 36, too old to be a front-line bowler in an Ashes series. Ponting chose not to enforce the follow-on and put his team back in to bat, a decision which surprised the majority of spectators and media personnel.
Australia's lead of going into the second innings was one of the largest ever held by a team which had then decided not to enforce the follow-on. This decision was in contrast to Michael Vaughan's decision in the 4th Test of the series, where he had enforced the follow-on with Australia just runs behind. Langer and Ponting ended the day unbeaten, with Langer on 88, and Ponting on 51 having scored his 9,th Test run during the innings.
The day was the third in a row which had gone badly for England and with the pitch showing wide cracks, offering encouragement to Warne in particular, an Australian victory was widely expected at the close of play.
Langer ended on not out while Ponting had progressed to Towards the end of Australia's second innings Ponting suffered a back strain, and did not return to the field after his side's declaration. England began their second innings shakily, with Strauss out for 11 off Clark in a similar fashion to his first innings dismissal, this time hooking the ball to fine leg, the dismissal owing more to poor execution than the poor shot selection witnessed in England's first innings.
Collingwood and Pietersen then rebuilt their team's innings in the second session, sharing a run partnership. Collingwood was eventually stumped for 96 off the bowling of Warne, charging down the pitch while looking to reach his third Test century, and his first against Australia, and missing his shot by nearly six inches.
Flintoff soon followed after scoring 16 runs, perishing to an ill-judged pull shot off the bowling of Warne. Pietersen and Jones were the not out batsmen at the end of the day, with 92 and 12 runs respectively, with England needing a further for victory. Pietersen's innings was notable because of the manner in which he had suppressed legendary leg spinner Warne.
At one point at the end of a delivery, Warne picked up the ball and threw it to Gilchrist behind stumps albeit badly. The ball veered and headed to Pietersen, who was forced to defend himself with a reflexive hookshot. He could be seen mouthing the words, "Fuck off! The fourth day was a break from the norm of the Brisbane Test, which until then had gone entirely in Australia's favour. The partnership between Collingwood and Pietersen was the first of any substance in the Test for England and allowed some hope of an unlikely draw, with reports from some sources of an approaching storm.
England's chances of lasting the day were effectively dashed after Pietersen flicked the ball to Damien Martyn at short midwicket off Brett Lee in the first over of the day, immediately after Australia's taking the new ball and without adding to his overnight score.
Jones struck a few boundaries but edged onto his stumps off McGrath. Fellow NSW paceman Clark took the final wickets of Giles caught at first slip , Hoggard caught at first slip and Harmison caught pulling at fine leg , with England lasting only 20 overs for the day.
England's fourth innings total of was the highest ever achieved in a fourth innings of a Test match at the Gabba but was still nowhere near the total set by Australia.
Australia won the match by runs, with Ponting named man of the match for his and 60 not out. The total attendance was recorded as , for the match. In a similar fashion to , England named an unchanged XI for the second Test, despite Cricinfo and others suggesting that it was "almost certain" that Monty Panesar would replace James Anderson.
Andrew Flintoff won the toss and elected to bat first. Early on, the dry flat wicket offered little for the Australian bowlers who toiled in the first hour for no wicket.
This was the third time in the series that Strauss had been caught attempting to play on the leg side. Clark then took the wicket of Alastair Cook for 27 runs, having him caught behind by Adam Gilchrist.
The periods before and just after lunch were dominated by Shane Warne , who bowled with consistent line and length to keep both Ian Bell and Paul Collingwood restricted to about two runs per over. Bell continued his struggle against Warne, who beat Bell's bat on several occasions. Despite a slow scoring rate , the batsmen made a good fightback in the afternoon session, despite some persistent Australian bowling. After tea, England came out looking to increase the scoring rate.
Soon, however, Bell was caught and bowled by Brett Lee as he skied an attempted pull to the leg side. Kevin Pietersen was aggressive from his first ball, going on to make his half-century off just 70 balls.
Collingwood was not out on 98 runs, tantalisingly close to a maiden Ashes century. The day's honours were roughly even. Australia would have liked more than three wickets, but they did keep England's scoring rate low on a flat, dry wicket. Australia resumed play on the second day with the ball only six overs old, while England's Collingwood required two runs to make a century.
Collingwood made his runs in the second over of the morning, off the second ball he faced. Pietersen made his own century later in the morning. The two batsmen continued after lunch in a session that would go on to break several previous partnership records for English batting.
He was out caught behind by Gilchrist from an outswinging Clark delivery on the final ball before tea. After the interval, Pietersen went on to make before being run out. Collingwood, and particularly Pietersen, consistently attacked the Australian bowlers, forcing them to take up defensive fielding positions for the first time in the series.
Noticeably, Warne bowled defensively outside leg stump from around the wicket to Pietersen, having exhausted all other methods of containment. The Australian bowling was generally ineffective during the England innings, despite keeping the run rate low. It was speculated that while McGrath had declared himself fit for the game, he was still struggling with his sore heel.
Australia had to face nine overs before the close of play. Flintoff, who opened the bowling with Matthew Hoggard , took the wicket of Justin Langer during this short period. England started the day strongly, their bowling attack testing the Australians as Hoggard claimed two wickets before lunch.
The first came in the 13th over of the innings as Matthew Hayden edged a delivery to the gloves of Geraint Jones. The second was in the 23rd over when Bell took a comfortable slip catch off Martyn.
Anderson and Steve Harmison also bowled well, proving to be much more accurate and economical in their bowling than they had in the first Test at Brisbane. At times England's fielding was inept, however. In the morning session, Ricky Ponting survived a dropped catch by Giles and a run out chance missed by Collingwood when on 35 and 43 respectively. Following the lunch break, Ponting returned to build a solid partnership with Michael Hussey.
The Australian batsmen remained at the crease throughout the afternoon session. Ponting reached his 33rd Test century in the 62nd over, just before tea. After tea, Australia continued to settle into their batting rhythm as Hussey reached his 50 in the 64th over. England began to lose the advantage they had established early in the day, with runs coming more easily to Australia. In the 73rd over Hussey survived a dramatic run out chance which had to be referred to the third umpire as he slid his bat back into his crease a fraction of a second before Jones broke the stumps off an Anderson throw.
It was not until after the new ball had been taken in the 83rd over that England got a breakthrough. Compared to calcium, other nutrients are present in much smaller amounts. Wood ash is about four percent potassium, and less than two percent phosphorus, magnesium, aluminum, and sodium.
In terms of commercial fertilizer, average wood ash would be about N-P-K. Figure 1 shows the average amount of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, aluminum, and sodium in wood ash. These average amounts are from 12 different wood ashes—six produced in Maine and six produced in other states. Other nutrients are present in wood ash in much smaller amounts. Some of these nutrients, like boron, copper, molybdenum, sulfur, and zinc, are needed in trace amounts by plants.
Wood ash may also contain heavy metals. These metals are of concern because they may cause health problems for humans, livestock or wildlife. Both micronutrient and heavy metal concentration in wood ash are usually measured in parts per million ppm. In other words, the number of pounds contained in every million pounds or tons of ash. Figure 2 provides an example of the heavy metal content of wood ash.
As Figure 2 indicates, applying five tons of ash adds less than two pounds of these elements. If concentrations of cadmium, chromium, or lead are too high, you may not be able to use wood ash. Wood ash is commonly used as a liming agent because of its high calcium content. Liming agents are used to increase soil pH pH is a measure of how acid soil is. Soils in the Northeast are naturally acid. Soil pH of 4. A soil pH of 7. Most plants prefer soil pH between 6 and 7 although potatoes and blueberries prefer lower soil pH.
There are several ways to estimate the liming of wood ash. Lab measurements can be taken by boiling the ash in acid to find out the calcium carbonate equivalent CCE. The CCE tells you how well the wood ash would raise soil pH compared to lime calcium carbonate. Like the wood ash nutrients discussed above, there are big differences in wood ash CCEs. When CCE was determined in the lab, it ranged from 25 to 59 percent.
This is shown in Table 1. This means that if you added the same amount of lime and wood ash, the wood ash should be 25 to 59 percent as effective in raising soil pH. Wood ash CCE can also be determined in the lab by mixing the ash with soil and measuring the change in soil pH over time. Determination of V s using multiple reflection method after Lee and Santamarina Figure A2 indicates the result of multiple reflection tests for the CP sample, and Fig.
A3 shows a comparison between shear wave velocity values computed with first arrival at point C and V s values computed using the multiple reflection method. The maximum difference in shear wave velocity between these two procedures for calculating V s is approximately 3.
Comparison between V s computed with first arrival at point C and V s computed from multiple reflection method. Advanced Search. All Journals Journal. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Corresponding author: H. Choo e-mail: choohw gmail. Abstract High-carbon-content fly ashes with biomass particles are typically landfilled in accordance with the ASTM C regulation.
Fly ash facts for highway engineers. American Coal Ash Association. Google Scholar. Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete.
ASTM standard Ca. Atkinson JH. Non-linear soil stiffness in routine design. Atkinson, J. The mechanics of soils and foundations. CRC Press. Characterization of carbon concentrates from coal-combustion fly ash. Baxter L.
Biomass-coal co-combustion: opportunity for affordable renewable energy. The effect of grinding on the physical properties of fly ashes and a Portland cement clinker. Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. BS British Standards Institution, London. Charles-Cruz, C. Compressibility and creep behaviour of hydraulically placed PFA and mine tailings fills. Potash production was always a by-product industry, following from the need to clear land for agriculture.
From , potash from wood ashes was exported from Canada. There were asheries in operation in The industry declined in the late 19th century when large-scale production of potash from mineral salts was established in Germany. In , potash was discovered in Saskatchewan , Canada, in the process of drilling for oil. Active exploration began in In , the Potash Company of America became the first potash producer in Canada with the commissioning of an underground potash mine at Patience Lake ; however, due to water seepage in its shaft, production stopped late in but following extensive grouting and repairs, resumed in The underground mine was flooded in and was reactivated for commercial production as a solution mine in In a Canadian company known as Kalium Chemicals established the first potash mine that took advantage of the solution process.
The discovery was made during oil reserve exploration. The mine was developed near Regina, Saskatchewan. The mine reached depths greater than meters. Mosaic's, Belle Plaine had later gone to undertake the operation of the mine. Most of the world reserves of potassium K were deposited as sea water in ancient inland oceans. After the water evaporated, the potassium salts crystallized into beds of potash ore. These are the locations where potash is being mined today.
The deposits are a naturally occurring mixture of potassium chloride KCl and sodium chloride NaCl , more commonly known as table salt. Over time, as the surface of the earth changed, these deposits were covered by thousands of feet of earth. Most potash mines today are deep shaft mines as much as 4, feet 1, m underground. Others are mined as strip mines, having been laid down in horizontal layers as sedimentary rock.
In above-ground processing plants, the KCl is separated from the mixture to produce a high-analysis potassium fertilizer. Other potassium salts can be separated by various procedures, resulting in potassium sulfate and potassium-magnesium sulfate. Today some of the world's largest known potash deposits are spread all over the world from Saskatchewan , Canada, to Brazil , Belarus , Germany, and the Permian Basin. Canada is the largest producer, followed by Russia and Belarus.
In China , most potash deposits are concentrated in the deserts and salt flats of the endorheic basins of its western provinces, particularly Qinghai. Geological expeditions discovered the reserves in the s  but commercial exploitation lagged until Deng Xiaoping 's Reform and Opening Up Policy in the s. In the beginning of the 20th century, potash deposits were found in the Dallol Depression in Musely and Crescent localities near the Ethiopean- Eritrean border.
The latter is particularly suitable for surface mining; it was explored in the s but the works stopped due to the flood in Attempts to continue mining in the s were halted by the Eritrean—Ethiopian War and have not resumed as of Recovery of potassium fertilizer salts from sea water has been studied in India.
The latter was a joint venture between Belaruskali and Uralkali , but on July 30, , Uralkali announced that it had ended the venture. Potassium is the third major plant and crop nutrient after nitrogen and phosphorus. It has wide application to fruit and vegetables, rice, wheat and other grains, sugar, corn, soybeans, palm oil and cotton, all of which benefit from the nutrient's quality-enhancing properties.Nutrient content calculated as an average of 12 different wood ashes. (The appendix tables have more detailed information.) Figure 1 shows the average amount of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, aluminum, and sodium in wood ash. These average amounts are from 12 different wood ashes—six produced in Maine and six produced in other states.